Situated in the centre of Romania, in the depression of the Barsa-county of the Carpathians, Brasov is the second city as size and population. The biggest mountain-city in Romania, 550 m above the sea-level, Brasov is guarded by three hills: Tampa, Sprenghi and Warthe; at the north side there is the Barsa-county.
From the surrounding hills you can admire the sharp roofs of the houses built in the past centuries.
The archeological discoveries certify that the zone was already populated in the Neolithic period and in the Iron Age here were thriving geto-dacic settlements. Brasov was documentary certified in the XIIIth century, as Brassovia, But also known as Corona, Barassu and Brasov.
Lying at the crossroad of several commercial roads, Brasov made during the centuries the connection between Transylvania, Tara Romaneasca and Moldavia, and it became a prosperous commercial centre.
As the ottoman threat increased, the town has been surrounded in the XVth century with defending walls consolidated with towers and bastions. The Saxon population,wich was preponderant in the medieval citadel, was organized in guilds.
The quarter of Schei, one of the oldest of the city, lies outside the city walls and has old houses and narrow streets. The oldest Romanian School was built in Schei in the XVI th century, and the lessons in Romanian were held here beginning with 1599. Now the First Romanian School is a museum whose exponates attest the fact that Brasov is an ancient center of Romanian culture. The first Romanian books, printed by the Deacon Coresi in the XVI th century, are also exhibited here.
The St.Nicholas church, standing in the same square near the First Romanian School, was built between 1518-1598 with the substantial aid of the wallachian and moldavian princes.
In this district, there is another important monument to be visited, The Schei Gate, built in 1827 as triumphal arch with three archways.
The Black Church
The center of the town is dominated by a church built in late gothic style, with elegant lines and impressive dimensions: The Black Church. The name derives from a devastating fire wich over weld the whole town in the year of 1689, blackening the walls. The entire woodwork and the old organ were destroyed then and it is told that the bells mold under the heat.
The construction of the church has begun at the end of the XIV th century, on the place of an old church in Romanic style, and it ended about 1477. Three bells were lifted in the 65m high tower, one of them being the biggest in Romania (6.300 kg). The only part conserved is the mural painting from the southern entrance hall. The organ, one of the biggest in south-eastern Europe, is known for its sonority realized by 4.000 pipes and 76 stops and 4 manuals. It has been built in 1836-1839 by master Buchholz from Berlin. Organ concerts are held here.
In front of the church you can admire the statue of Johannes Honterus, humanist of the XVI th century, promoter of the reforming ideas of Luther and founder of the first printing shops in Transylvania—1535. The school in the yard of the church is named after this illuminist.
Town Hall and Town Hall Square
Along the centuries, the Town Hall Square was the centre of the citadel, hosting the most important bargains, where comerciants and craftsmen from all the Romanian were present. In older times, the square was surrounded by houses built in the Renaissance, Provincial and Neoclassic Baroque style, houses in wich shops and warehouses were accommodated.
In modern times reintroduced since 1992 (after 20 years of interruption) the international music contest “The Golden Stag” take’s place every year.
The Town Hall Square, dated in the first half of the XV th century, is dominated by the Town Hall, a building wich combines several architectural styles. On the facade you can see the coat of arms representing a crown on a tree stump with 13 roots—symbolizing the 13 villages of the Barsa-county. During the centuries, this building has been the residence of the administration and the Court of the city, but now the History Museum of Brasov is established here.
"Bartolomeu" Church is a former Catholic church built in the Roman style with broken arches and pointed vaults and grit stone-made decorative motifs reminding of the Gothic style. It became a Lutheran church in the 16th century.
The founder of this church was Herman von Salza, the leader of the German knights` Order. The church is 55 metres long and it proves to be one of the oldest and most representative buildings in Brasov. The columns are supported by strong pedestals and end in pre-Gothic capitals. The paintings impress us by the Roman and Gothic patterns.
After the 1833 earthquake the altar was rebuilt in the classic style, a new organ with 25 registers was installed. The clock tower was installed in 1923.
"Bartolomeu" Church is situated in the old part of the city and it was built in the 13th century. The church still preserves elements belonging to the Roman style, but the Gothic elements prevail. "Bartolomeu" Church is one of the fortified churches in Brasov County.
The health resort Poiana Brasov is situated on a plateau at the foot of the Postavarul Mountain. It offers you many possibilities of spending your holidays in summertime and in wintertime.
You can spend unforgettable holidays by practicing different sports: swimming in pools, tennis and table tennis, riding, bow shooting, minigolf, badminton, ski, cross-country ski, skating, drives with the carriage or the sledge. Two cable railways and a gondola lead you from Poiana to the peak of the Postavarul.
Bran, a beautiful mountain village, is guarded by an imposing medieval castle, built near the road on the peak of a rock. In the Middle Age, the castle has protected the pass through wich the wares were traded between Transylvania and the other Wallachian counties.
In ancient times, on the place where the castle stands now, stood a fortress. In 1377, the citizens of Brasov built in here the castle to defend their town. The castle stood up to many storms and it was repaired several times. In the first half of the XX th century the Royal Family of Romania, Ferdinand and Maria of Hohenzollern, temporary lived in the castle. In 1958 the castle became a museum where a rich collection of weapons, helmets, manuscripts, wood carvings, icons and furniture of the Feudal Epoch can be admired.